Insomnia is generally the condition of not been able to sleep. It commonly leads to daytime sleepiness, lethargy and a general feeling of being unwell. Mood swings, irritability and anxiety are common associated symptoms.
According to the National Sleep Foundation,30-40 percent of Americans adults report that they have had symptoms of insomnia within the last 12 month, and 10-15 percent of adults claim to have chronic insomnia.
There is sometimes an underlying medical condition that causes chronic insomnia while transient insomnia may be due to recent event or occurrence.
According to National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, 20 percent of non-alcoholic related car crash injuries are caused by drivers sleepiness. Insomnia is commonly caused by:
*Disruptions in circadian rhythm - jet lag, job shift changes,high altitude ,environmental noise ,extreme heat or cold.
*Psychological issues - bipolar disorder ,depression or anxiety disorder.
*Medical condition -chronic pain and fatigue syndrome, congestive heart failure ,angina, asthma or tumour.
*Hormones -hormones shift during menstruation.
*Other factors -sleeping next to a snoring partner, parasite genetics condition, overactive mind or pregnancy.
Signs and symptoms
Insomnia itself may be a symptom of an underlying medical condition. However, there are many sign and symptoms associated with it. They include;
~Being uncoordinated as increase in error or accident.
~Waking during the night.
~Worrying about not sleeping.
Insomnia includes a wide range of sleeping disorders, from lack of sleep quality to lack of sleep quantity. Insomnia is commonly separated into three types:
~Transient insomnia - occurs when symptoms last up to three nights.
~Acute insomnia - also called short-term insomnia. Symptoms persist for several weeks.
~Chronic insomnia - this type lasts for months, and sometimes years. According to the National Institutes of Health, the majority of chronic insomnia cases are side effects resulting from another primary problem.
Non medical (cognitive & behavioural) treatment for Insomnia:
*Relaxation training -mindfulness, breathing exercises, guided imagery.
*Stimulus control - going to bed only when drowsy, sleep restrictions which involves a strict schedule of bedtime and wake time and the limit time in bed to only when a person is sleeping.
*Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) includes behavioral changes (such as keeping a regular bedtime and wake up time, getting out of bed after being awake for 20 minutes or so, and eliminating afternoon naps) but it adds a cognitive or "thinking" component.
CBT works to challenge unhealthy beliefs and fears around sleep and teach rational, positive thinking. There is a good amount of research supporting the use of CBT for insomnia.
For example, in one study, patients with insomnia attended one CBT session via the internet per week for 6 weeks. After the treatment, these people had improved sleep quality.